IRINEMA project


The main scientific objectives of this project are the immobilization of an organic solid residue (RSO), nuclear grade ion exchange resin in alkali activated materials, the study of the durability in aggressive environments and the leaching of the final product with the immobilized residue. The technological objective is to use these new geopolymers as an encapsulating matrix for radioactive waste whose storage is managed by ENRESA. These geopolymers can also be used to immobilize other types of radioactive waste generated nationally and internationally. A similar study is carried out with traditional Portland cement-based systems for the immobilization of RSO for comparative purposes.

Specific goals

There are several specific objectives to carry out this report: 1. Preparation (M1-M5) 2. Procedure and methodology for loading the resin and how to incorporate the elements. (M5-M11) 3. Design of the base geopolymer and the geopolymer with the immobilized residue (M5-M19). Aluminosilicic raw materials and suitable alkaline activators are identified to obtain two geopolymer types with high and low pH. Subsequently, the requirements for the preparation of the geopolymer with the immobilized product will be defined and its influence on the properties in the fresh and hardened state of the geopolymer with the immobilized residue will be studied the maximum amount of immobilized residue will be determined. 4. Characterization of the geopolymer with the immobilized residue (M18-M33). A study will be made on the microstructure, of the chemical properties in the solid state and in the aqueous phase, of the physical properties and of the dimensional stability of the geopolymer with the immobilized residue. 5. Design and characterization of the traditional Portland cement system for immobilization of the waste (M12-M23). The requirements for the preparation of the Portland cement system with the resin will be defined and the properties in the fresh and hardened state of the final product, the maximum amount of immobilized residue, the microstructure will be studied in an analogous way to the case of the geopolymer with the immobilized residue. , chemical and physical properties and dimensional stability. 6. Design and evaluation of accelerated leaching tests under different exposure conditions (M31-M48). Different leaching tests will be developed using monoliths of geopolymers and traditional Portland cement systems with and without resins immobilized in different types of waters. Dissemination and disclosure(M1-M48). The dissemination will be responsible for communicating the findings to the scientific community, while the dissemination will seek to bring that knowledge closer to ordinary citizens.


Development of geopolymer formulations with the organic solid residue for its immobilization. Demonstrate the confining capacity of immobilized resins in the new geopolymeric matrices.


The results of this proposal will have a positive impact on European life. The development of eco-efficient cement materials, using industrial by-products as raw materials instead of limestone and clays to produce Portland cement, would imply reducing the extraction of raw materials from quarries (without landscape alteration), the enormous energy consumption involved in the decarbonization of limestone and the clinkerization of the crude mixture and, of course, the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These actions provide solutions against the negative effect of climate change. Furthermore, the management of radioactive waste would imply greater protection for humans and the environment through the application of this new technology. The use of this new immobilization technique could mean a decrease in the volume of radioactive waste stored, which would facilitate waste management by companies in the sector, which will be of great economic interest.

The milling





Tests on fresh cements




Tests on hardened cements